For a 1,000 years, Japan was ruled by a Samurai class that spent its spare time in the quest for perfection. The Samurai pursued a code of behaviour that not only made them better soldiers, but also made them appreciate their lives while they still lasted.
At the same time that the Samurai were seeking perfection, people in the Britain Isles, another island group disconnected from the Eurasian continent, were being continually invaded by mainland armies. The continued rape and pillage of Britain Isles ended up producing a motley crew of cultures that the English authorities struggled to gain control over. In 1788, the disturbers of the peace were exported to Australia to lay the foundations of Australian urban society. For the next 80 years, Australia was supplied with the humans that Britain didn't want.
During World War II, Australia and Japan locked horns in Papua New Guinea. Although the Australians emerged triumphant, the fear of another Asian invasion motivated the Australian government to try to increase migration to build Australia's power. Because the British had little desire to migrate to their old Convict dumping ground, the Australian government targeted economic and social refugees from Southern Europe who were likewise accustomed to unsavoury labels.
The Immigration Restriction Act (White Australia Policy) initially prevented Asians from following the European riff raff. The policy was deconstructed after Australian soldiers stationed in Japan married Japanese women and insisted on bringing them home to Australia. These marriages subsequently opened the door for Korean, Vietnamese and Chinese refugees to head down under. After Asians who had low status in their countries laid the groundwork, high status Asians started migrating to Australia.
The different histories of Japan and Australia are reflected in their respective cultures today. Because Japanese history is considered to be noble (World War II excepted), the Japanese use it as a muse of inspiration for their creativity. On the other hand, because Australian history carries some unsavoury labels, most modern Australians either ignore it, or seek an excuse to degrade it. For example, they might argue that it is not relevant to non-British migrants or Aborigines. Ironically, the desire to disassociate the present from the past is one of the most defining features of modern day Australian culture and one of the most telling example of a Convict legacy.
Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%
White 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1%
US 22.8%, China 14.3%, South Korea 7.8%, Taiwan 6.8%, Hong Kong 5.6% (2006)
Japan 19.6%, China 12.3%, South Korea 7.5%, US 6.2%, India 5.5%, NZ 5.5%, UK 5% (2006)
Most Australians like the idea of a labourer being able to have a beer with the Queen and seeing her as different but his equal. For example, the trucking magnate Lindsay Fox (net worth $350 million) said of Australia:
'We don't have a class structure. We have people who relate to people. No body is superior. No body is inferior. The people who I went to school with collect the garbage around here. But if they want to come in and have a drink, that's fine with me.'
The egalitarian sentiments are reflected in Australian English. Australians may refer
to some foreigners as "mate" instead of using more respectful titles such as your
honour, sir, madam, mrs, mr, ms, lord, and your highness. Likewise,
cricketer Dennis Lillee expressed his egalitarian sentiments when he greeted Queen Elizabeth using the words:
how ya goin'?"
Unlike Australia, Japan is a hierarchical society. A different language is used for addressing people of different status. When addressing people of higher status, Japanese use a more formal language that includes different words and honorifics.
The hierachial nature of Japanese can cause some confusion when dealing with Australians. For example, in
1980 a Japanese prefecture sponsored a weekend seminar to discuss problems that
Japanese people might experience in Australia. One speaker, Hiro Mukai, stated:
"Australians appear very naive
to the newly-arrived Japanese. They speak the same way with everyone."
Shame culture versus guilt culture
American anthropologist Ruth Benedict classified Japan as a "shame" culture and cultures with a Christian base as "guilt" cultures. She basically meant that shame is ruled by external moral standards while guilt is ruled by internal moral standards. Benedict used the cultural framework to explain the behaviour of Japanese soldiers, who often considered a sense of honour to be more important than their own lives.
Some Japanese have used the shame-versus-guilt definitions to explain why Australians are more opinionated or honest about their beliefs than they are. For example, if a Japanese person was given food he or she didn't like, he or she may politely say it is tasty. The intention is to keep harmony in the communities.
Aside from the different religions that underpin the value systems of the Australia and Japan, there are numerous influences that may make the Japanese less likely to express their opinion and more likely to be shy. Firstly, the Japanese language is hierarchical. As a result of using it, individual Japanese become relatively more conscious of their inferior social status as they are growing up sorrounded by people superior in status (because they are older). Because they are more aware of their inferior social status, the Japanese may be less likely to express their opinion for the same reason an Australian might not express their opinion around their boss. Specifically, individuals usually only express an opinion when they don't feel they are inferior in status. Unlike the Japanese, because Australians use a language that does not accord status, they feel more egalitarian as they are growing up. As a result, they have more confidence in their opinions because they feel more equal with those around them. A second reason for the reluctance of Japanese to express their opinion is that Japan lacks the social diversity of Australia. Therefore, the Japanese are less likely to feel that being different is acceptable. Thirdly, democracies place symbolic power in the common person and diversify the population by encouraging debate. In this way, democratic government can counter hierarchical social structures as well as the oppressive nature of monocultures. Because Japan has only had democratic governance since World War 2, it hasn't had the same amount of time to diversify its national myths like Australia. Perhaps the recent influence of democracy could be seen in the behaviour of Masanori Murakawa, a former wrestler turned politician. On his first day of work in 2003, Masanori arrived wearing a mask in addition to his suit. In response to criticism, he said,
"I have absolutely no intention of taking it off, no matter how much opposition there is,"
Bleach - The plot of Japanese anime Bleach shows a useful play on the guilt versus shame ideology. Byakuya, the captain of the greatest noble house, always obeys rules; including the rule that his sister must be executed. He fights Ichigo, an Australian like character with blonde hair, who doesn't care about rules but cares for his friends; including Byakuya's sister.
The introduction scene from the 2003 movie Japanese Story (below) aims to demonstrate some of the cultural differences between Japan and Australia. The movie begins with the Japanese man, Hiromitsu, and the Australian woman, Sandy, offending each other. Sandy comes to pick Hiromitsu up from an intersection., but arrives late and in dishevelled attire. Hiromitsu, wearing a black suit in the Australian outback, gives her a business card. She then offends him further by looking at it briefly, hitting it, and then slipping it into her back pocket. Sandy opens the back door of the car so that Hiromitsu can put his suitcase in. Hiromitsu stares at her in bemusement and Sandy is forced to put the suitcase in herself. Hiromitsu offends Sandy further by sitting in the back seat of the car as if Sandy is some kind of chauffeur. Once in the car, Sandy tries to engage him in a conversation, but he is very reluctant to talk.
It is a scene that shows all the cultural understanding that may be acquired after reading the introduction pages of a Lonely Planet travel guide. Indeed, the Japanese are hierarchical and have many protocols concerning engagement. Ironically, the hierarchical culture and the regimented protocols concerning social engagement make the Japanese very culturally literate. Because they are accustomed to the importance of protocol, they are more likely to research it when visiting other cultures. It is inconceivable that a Japanese businessman would visit Australia and expect the Australians to act like the Japanese. To show Hiromitsu as culturally ignorant completely misrepresents Japan, and especially Japanese businessmen.
The actions of Sandy would be quite possible in an egalitarian society like Australia. One of the side-effects of egalitarianism is that all cultures tend to be treated equally, which means Australians often refrain from doing any research when engaging across cultures. Everyone is treated the same. Of course, in the mining industry, cross-cultural literacy tends to be quite high due to an understanding of the needs of the customer.
Japanese Story 2003
Japanese often use blood types to define personalities much like Australians use astrological signs. For example, Type As are peaceful but high-strung. Type Bs are caring but selfish. Type ABs are rational but indecisive, and Type Os are sociable and honest but dislike authority.
Not only are blood types used as an ice-breaker, they are also used when forming opinions on other cultures. Because O is the most common blood type in Australia, Japanese tend to view Australians through the prism of the blood type. Specifically, Australians are viewed as not liking authority and being rude but being good at team sports. (A is the most common blood type in Japan.)
Ironically, Japan never wanted to invade Australia prior to World War 2 because officials felt that with so many O blood types, Australians would be too difficult to control. The Japanese had had similar experience with Type Os in Taiwan and felt they were far more active than the submissive Blood Type As in Haikado.
The Japanese are very sensual people. They seek stimulation of their sense of taste, smell, touch, sound and sight. To stimulate their sense of taste, they seek highly quality food made with fresh ingredients. To stimulate their sense of smell, they seek the best French perfumes. To stimulate their sense of touch, they seek the joy of sitting in a hot spring. To stimulate their sense of sight, they pursue artistic development with classes in flower arrangement, calligraphy, or fashion design. When they aren't actually being stimulated, Japanese like to watch television shows of others being stimulated.
Australians are not sensual by comparison to the Japanese. The difference can probably be explained by the respective environments. Because Japan has lots of hot springs, Japanese get a lot of opportunities to feel the sensual pleasure of them. Admittedly, Australia has lost of beaches where relaxing in the sun can serve a similar purpose, but the beaches are not as accessible to all Australians as hot springs are to Japanese.
The quest for sensual stimulation can also be explained as a result of different levels of stress in the respective societies. Because Japan's rigid social protocols cause stress, when Japanese have time to themselves, they like to unwind. With less rigid protocols of behaviour, Australians don't get as stressed.
Cute - kawaii
Most Japanese love cute things. At times, the cuteness can be a little extreme by Australian standards. For example, vending machines in love hotels often sell Hello Kitty vibrators. Likewise, when Japanese women refer to each other, they may add the title ‘chan’, which means ‘child.’ As far as most Japanese are concerned, there is nothing strange about a business woman wearing a suit but having someone refer to her as a child as she adjusts her make up using a pixie power mirror.
In Australia, women tend to have an ideology of growing old gracefully and some of the Japanese customs would be frowned upon for having connotations of paedophilia. Somewhat in contradiction to their ethic, Australian women often remove their pubic hair in a way that the Japanese would consider to have paedophilic connotations.
Japanese ladies associating themselves with Hello Kitty to increase their sex appeal
Koda Kumi - feminine body language
Australia is one of the few countries in the eastern hemisphere that doesn't have a major issue with Japan's approach to remembering its war dead.
The Japanese approach to remembrance doesn't involve judging whether the dead were good people or bad. All that matters is that they died serving Japan. The approach comes from the Shinto religion, which views the spirit of the dead as being separate from the body of the living. Consequently, Shinto does not recognise the crimes of spirit's body when walking the earth.
In the 1800s, the Yasukuni Shrine was designated as a place to pray for the souls of the fallen. The Shrine does not honour the soldiers. Because Shinto views all killing as a crime, the shrine exists as a place where spirits can be preyed for so that they may rest peacefully. Yasukuni literaly means "Pacifying the Nation."
For the Japanese, the approach has a positive effect in creating passivism. Not only does it encourage the Japanese to remember the fallen, it discourages them from being bitter at their enemies. From the 1850s to the 2000, France, Holland, Russia, England, China, Japan and America all had competing self-interests in east Asia that expressed themselves in conduct many Japanese would consider to be morally objectionable. The Shinto faith makes it easier for the Japanese to simply forgive and move on.
Concerning some of Japan's neighbours is the fact that 14 soldiers convicted of being Class A war criminals are enshrined at Yasukuni along with 2,466,000 other men and women. Visits to the shrine by Japanese politicians are therefore judged to be a sign that Japan lacks remorse over World War II.
The Australian approach to war remembrance has some similar elements to Japan, and this may explain why Australians haven't had the same violent reaction to Japanese remembrance as have other countries. A central feature of Australian remembrance is the Ode, a paragraph taken from the poem 'Ode for the Fallen':
" They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old;
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them. "
Like Shinto belief, the Ode doesn't encourage judgements about right or wrong. The only thing that matters is that people died and those who live should remember them.
In addition to refraining from judgement, the Australian approach is on remembering fallen soldiers, not the evil of the enemy. Because it's more focussed on the self, there is less attention given to the wrongs committed by others.
While the Japanese approach is anchored in the Shinto religion and national pride, the Australian approach is anchored in mateship. The tradition of Australian remembrance commenced with an informal gathering of ex-soldiers in 1923. These ex-servicemen were not interested in politics, nor national pride. They simply wanted to express their sorrow and remember fallen comrades. It wasn't until 1927 that their tradition received any political sanction or recognition.
The Japanese are reluctant to embrace a victim identity on either an individual or national level. The Japanese ethic is probably a legacy of 1,000 years of samurai rule. The samurai wanted to improve and felt no pride when defeated on the battlefield. To deal with the shame of defeat, they would kill themselves. Aside from being harsh on their own failings, they were harsh on the failings of others and dealt with the weakness of others by cutting off their heads. In such an environment, people who complained about being victims led a short life.
Today, some of the samurai tradition can be seen in training for Sumo. Sumo wrestlers live a commune style existence in which the junior rikishi do all the work and the senior sekitori train and eat. There is a clear division in rank that symbolically states that the riskishi are inferior. If the riskisihi are unhappy with the situation, they must work hard to become sekitori.
In daily life, a similar mentality contributes to the high rate of suicide in Japan. Because no excuses are made for failing to succeed, traditionally the Japanese would kill themselves rather than live in the shame of not achieving their goals.
At a national level, the reluctance to accept a victim identity can be seen in the country's relationship with the United States. In the eyes of some international observers, the actions of the US in regards to Japan prior to, during and after World War 2 were sufficient to define the Japanese as victims. Although the Japanese may have a logical argument about the rights or wrongs of America and their country's reaction, they rarely have an emotive response to what happened. Basically, America proved to be the stronger nation and that's all that really mattered.
When Australian men have campaigned for the rights of victims, it has usually been for victims from a social group the Australian is not part of. With the exception of some ethnic groups, few Australian men embrace a victim identity on either an individual or social level for themselves. For example, Australian men have never sought an apology from England for the treatment of Convicts during the 80 years they were sent to Australia. Likewise, there has never been a united push to extract an apology from the Japanese over World War II. The ideology of the Australian men is exemplified in the personal motto of the late billionaire Kerry Packer, "never complain, never explain."
The reluctance to personal identify oneself as a victim is probably a penal legacy. In Australia's penal era, etiquette prescribed that crying about being a victim was strictly taboo. According to the Convict J.F Mortlcok:
"In Australia, silent composure under suffering is strictly prescribed by convict etiquette…some exhibit an incredible power of enduring all these inflictions, which however, killed or greatly debilitated many of them."
Combined with the harsh Australian environment, the penal history created a battler mythology that placed emphasis on persevering against a problem instead of complaining about it. As was aptly stated by authors Michael
Page and Robert Inapen:
"The true Aussie
battler and his wife thrust doggedly onwards: starting again, failing again, implacably
thrusting towards success. For success, even if it is only the success of knowing
that one has tried to the utmost and never surrendered, is the target of every
Some Australian women embrace a victim identity on an individual level. They also embrace a victim identity on a gender level. It is rare; however, for Australian women to embrace a victim identity on a national level.
Go hard or go home
Both Australia and Japan have a strong work ethic. In Australia, the work ethic is reflected in sayings such as "go hard or go home." It is also reflected in words such as 'hard yakka' that are used to express appreciation for hard work and 'bludger' that are used to insult lazy people that don't contribute to the group.
The sayings are also mirrored in statistics. In 2005, Australians worked an average of 1855 hours a year. This was significantly more than most Europeans who only worked an average of around 1350 hours per year. It was sightly more than the Japanese, who worked an average of 1802 hours.
Although the average Australian worked more hours than the average Japanese, the Japanese had the world's highest percentage of people working in excess of 50 hours a week. (28 per cent in Japan compared to 20 per cent in Australia.)
The Japanese work ethic is reflected in sayings such as 'gambalimasu', which translates as 'do your best.' Whatever the Japanese do, they try to do well. This means putting in extra hours at work.
A common stereotype in the west is that Japanese are not creative. The stereotype is not grounded in fact. Japan leads the world in technological innovations and Japanese animation is very popular all over the globe. Arguably, only America has produced cartoon characters with more popularity than the likes of Astro Boy or Hello Kitty.
Australia is a very creative place; however, most of that creativity just isn't any good. A lot of Australian movies, sculpture, and painting looks like a dog's breakfast. The problem in Australia is that there is far too much bureaucratic control, and this results in opportunities being given to Australian artists, intellectuals and movie makers simply don't have talent. They only have an opportunity to make and show their works because of their social connections with a corrupt bureaucracy.
A history of invention is Australia's shining light in regards to creativity. For a very small country, Australia has produced a lot of inventions that have changed the world. Australian inventors probably succeed where other Australian creatives fail because they have a clear idea about what they want to achieve and consider a wide variety of knowledge bases to achieve it.
Monkey Magic: Japanese TV series based on the ancient Chinese novel, Journey to the West
Japan's highly successful modern culture draws heavily upon its traditional culture. For example, anime such as Bleach blends aspects of Shinto belief and samurai values with some modern day trends to create a unique, entertaining and thought provoking show that has proved to be very popular all over the world. Another successful example of Japan's blending the traditional and modern comes in its horror movie genre that has produce the Ring and Grudge series. The movies are based on traditional beliefs that all humans have a soul that leaves the body after death. If correct funeral rights are applied, the soul may join its ancestors. However, if a person dies in a shocking manner or funeral rites are not applied correctly, the soul may be influenced by powerful emotions such as revenge, hatred, sorrow which can then make a bridge back to the physical world.
In regards to true life historical stories, Sada Abe has proved to be a use of inspiration for art-house movie makers. In 1936, Sada erotically asphyxiated her lover and cut off his penis after he died. Her story was told in A Woman Called Sada Abe (1975), In the Realm of the Senses (1976) and Sada (1998).
Sturgeon's Law explains why Japan's mixing of the traditional and the modern has proved so successful. Sturgeon's Law proposes that "Ninety percent of everything is crud". When applied to story writing, 90 per cent of all new stories are crud and only 10 per cent is quality. The Japanese look at the 10 per cent of quality that has proved itself cross the generations and subsequently try to create within its confines. The Japanese see quality, and subsequently respect it, assimilate it, refine it and proliferate it. This increases their chance of producing something decent themselves.
Picnic at Hanging Rock
Few Australians appreciate the importance of tradition or history, which explains why Australia doesn't have a successful anime or movie industry. By ignoring tradition and history, as well as lacking respect, 90 per cent of all Australian creativity is crud. The 10 per cent of quality then gets ignored by subsequent generations that try to re-invent the wheel and produce crud 90 per cent of the time.
Although its movie industry is rubbish today, in the 70s and 80s, Australia had a successful industry in which cultural creatives had some respect for the past. Movies such as Picnic at Hanging Rock, Gallipoli, Man from Snowy River, Bodyline, and Phar Lap were all anchored in traditional concepts or historical events. At the beginning of the 20th century, Australia was the world leader in film production and again, stories were anchored in history. Movies such as The Story of the Kelly Gang, The Eureka Stockade, The Assigned Servant, The Squatters Daughter, Attack on the Gold Escort, Sentenced for Life and The Mark of the Lash were very popular with the Australian public. Taking a lead to embrace the future, Australian governments then banned bushranging films and the Australian industry fell into ruins.
Dealing with problems
The Japanese often deal with problems by looking the other way. This has led to a psychological condition known as Hikkomori Syndrome, which involves a young person withdrawing from society. Unusually, a kid will go to his room and stay there for years. His parents will leave food at the door. The parents are confused about what to do so they just ignore it.
Due to the cultural mentality, gambling and pornography thrives in Japan even though both are illegal. According to the Japanese, someone is only gambling if money is won. If a prize is won instead, it is not gambling. To exploit the loophole, pachinko parlours (like poker machine palaces) give gamblers the chance to win prizes. These can be then be sold for money at a shop located next to the pachinko parlour. Even though it is obviously in violation of the spirit of the rule, the Japanese look the other way. Pornography is treated in the same manner. A loop hole states if the penis and vagina is pixelated, the material is not porn. Exploiting the loophole, pornographers depict extreme hard core sex acts yet can still sell it legally as long as the vagina and penis are pixelated.
Australians are usually quick to denounce anyone exploiting loopholes or problems in societies. (Dealing with pornography is perhaps an exception. Technically, pornography is illegal in every Australian state. Even so, the porn industry thrives due to a mail-order business operating out of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.)
When Australians visit Japan, the cultural difference can cause problems. The Australians are in the habit of looking for problems in Japanese society so that they can be exposed to a wider audience. For example, Ryann Connel, the ex-chief editor of the English website of The Mainichi Daily News, busied himself with writing columns about a Japanese restaurant where patrons allegedly have sex with animals before eating them and Japanese men who cheat on their wives. For a while, Japanese politeness held sway and they simply ignored the Australian that was using alleged acts by individuals to denigrate the whole population. Eventually, the Japanese just returned fire. A blogging campaign commenced with comments such as:
"Ryann Connell is a degenerate scatologist - a typical Australian."
Sponsors also reacted, and pulled advertising estimated to be worth more than 20 million yen ($195,000). The newspaper issued a 1277-word apology, reprimanded several staff and put Connell on three months' disciplinary leave. The actions of Connel were quite typical of many Australians in Japan. Instead of trying to learn something about the culture, they just find fault with it.
Most Japanese don't eat whales and have no desire to eat whales. They do; however, reserve the right to eat whales. They consider criticism of whaling as a form of racism that is akin to an Indian telling an Australian not to eat beef. According to Buddhist ideology, there is no difference between a fish and a marine mammal and Australians have no moral right to say there is. In any case, the Japanese have noted that they are being targeted in a way that other whaling nations, such as Norway and Iceland, are not. This selective targeting of Japan is seen as a sign of Australian racism. In addition, because Australia has actively tried to stop the Japanese taking whales from Japanese waters, the Japanese consider Australia's anti-whaling stance to be interference in its territorial integrity
Like Japan, Australia has a long history of whaling. In 1792, Sydney Cove was the centre for the profitable whale and seal trade around the southern coasts. Numerous other coastal whaling stations were established around Australia in the late 1820s to 1830s. The whaling stations were the economic heart of communities, they brought in a cosmopolitan mix of people from around the world, and they inspired paintings, scrimshaws, and novels.
The whale's role as an object to be consumed continued until 1978, when commercial whaling ended with closure of Australia's last whaling station, the Cheynes Beach Whaling Company, in Western Australia. In 1979, Australia adopted an anti-whaling policy.
Today, whales are still part of Australian culture; however, the role they play reflects a degree of cultural evolution. Instead of been harvested, they are watched. Tour groups take people to watch the whales as they migrate up the Australian coast. This industry is worth an estimated $250million a year.
As well as contributing to the economy, whales also contribute to community spirit. As they swim up the Australian coast, people will flock to watch them, photograph them, paint pictures of them and give them names. Occasionally, a whale will swim into Sydney Harbour, and for days Australians will gather on the harbour foreshores to watch the whale play. The community spirit is covered in local newspapers, and on the TV news.
In order to protect the whales that migrate up the Australian coastline, in 2000 the Australian Whale Sanctuary was created in Australia's Antarctic Territory. Should those whales be killed, then part of Australia's culture dies with it. Japan might be deliberately targeting these waters because Australia is trying to stop the Japanese taking whales from their own waters.
The Japanese are correct that Australians have targeted them in a way that they have not targeted Icelanders and Norwegians; however, it probably isn’t for racist reasons. Many Australians can’t stand loopholes being exploited so when Japan argues that it is hunting whales for scientific reasons, Australians want to expose the lie. If the Japanese simply said they were hunting for commercial reasons, as do Norway and Iceland, they would probably be ignored just as Norway and Iceland are ignored.
Although Japanese are open to change, they don't want that change to include non-Japanese migrating to Japan. If they do, they are not recognised as Japanese. For example, the descendants of Koreans who migrated to Japan a century ago are still defined as Koreans and must carry foreigner cards.
To deal with an aging population, Japan is allowing some Brazilians of Japanese descent to migrate to Japan. These people are classed as Brazilians, not Japanese.
While the Japanese define migrants as foreigners, when a person migrates to Australia, they are pressured to see themselves as Australians. Many Australians dislike migrants waving the flag of foreign countries. They want the migrant to identify themselves as Australian and if they do, they will be treated as an Australian. The idea of a 3rd generation Australian identifying with a foreign country is off-putting for many Australians.
Activity 1 - War
Activity purpose -To understand the social identity of an Australian soldier by seeking the common humanity with the enemy as well as points of departure
In the aftermath of the Kokoda battle, Australian soldiers gave honest opinions on their enemy. After reading the following accounts written by both Australian and Japanese soldiers (from http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/s12899.htm), write about the type of values that you think the Diggers had. How do you think their culture differed from the Japanese? What aspects were the same?
Jack Manol, Pte 39th Militia:
"I struck this, this Japanese officer and uh, well he rode through the kunai, we were face-to-face with each other and I think he was just as bloody scared as I was, and I was just lucky that I could bloody pull the trigger first. Anyway, uh, that was an experience that uh, I wouldn't like to uh...ever handle again, because that haunted me for years. When I went through this bloke's equipment and that, part of my job, I found he had photographs of himself and his wife and three little kids."
Jack Manol, Pte 39th Militia:
"They were savages. But, you know, they were still good bloody soldiers. But they were savages, there's no doubt about that."
Lindsay Bear, Lt 2/14th AIF:
"I'm not sure they expected any difference from us. I'm not sure."
Jim Moir, Pte 2/16th AIF:
"We heard all this screaming and yelling going on, which I often wonder whether they did this to boost their own spirits or to frighten hell out of the blokes that they're going to have a go at.
Bu, um, one of our blokes responded with a Tarzan call. It was even funny at the time. As he did, they opened fire and they cleaned the lot of them up."
Jim Moir, Pte 2/16th AIF:
"I mean, we know what they did to a lot of the others -- they beheaded them or tied them up to a tree and used them for bayonet practice."
Activity 2 - Whaling versus koala and kangaroo culling
Activity purpose - think more deeper about the killing of wild animals that affects the reputations of both countries
The majority of Japanese do not eat whales and the majority of Australian do not cull kangaroos, but citizens in both countries suffer condemnation because such activities go on in their country.
Can you suggest any reason why Australian anti-whaling activists have targeted Japan over European nations like Iceland or Norway which also hunt whales?
In Australia, Aboriginal groups are allowed to kill Dugong, a marine mammal, with modern technology. They are not targeted by environmental activists. Do you think this is fair?
Japan mostly hunts the Minke whale. Some Japanese scientists argued that Minke numbers skyrocketed when competitors were hunted during the years of world wide whaling. They also say that high numbers of Minkes prevent other whale species from recovering. If correct, would you support an argument for Minke culling (if you support kangaroo culling)?
Why is there is a difference between killing a whale and killing a kangaroo?
Devise a campaign to persuade Japanese to stop killing whales and a campaign to stop Australians killing kangaroos.
Activity 3 - Create a Manga
Activity purpose - Develop skills in cultural fusion
In Japan, Manga (comics) are made for adults as well as children. Using the Japanese Manga aesthetic, create an Australian Manga that is set in the Australian future, the Australian past, or an Australian spiritual world. Follow the steps
Define the time period
Define the place
Who is the main character?
What type of adventures does the character have?
Your Manga should have one character who is funny and acts as comic relief. Think of such a character.