Relations between Aborigines
Friends or foes?
How and why have historians lied?
Myall Creek Masscare
Causes and consequences of colonial violence
Not a good fence builder
Mary Anne Bugg
Justice or resistance?
Resisting genocide or an agent of it?
Aborigines and Cricket
A study of imperialism
Baptism of Fire or Well of Tears?
On the 25th of April 1915, the British landed Australian soldiers at Gallipoli as part of an offensive against the Turkish control of the Dardanelles.
Quite stupidly, they landed the Diggers not on an open plain but on scrub-covered hills. The Turks were dug in from elevated positions and mowed down the Diggers as they leapt from the boats. Of the 1500 men who landed in the first wave, only 755 remained in active service at the end of the day. Over the following nine months, more than 7,500 Australians lost their lives. The campaign was then aborted and victory handed to the Turks. However, for reasons many people find difficult to understand, Gallipoli went on to become one of the most immortal events in Australian history.
One of the people who had trouble understanding the importance of Gallipoli was ex-Prime Minister Paul Keating. In 2008, Keating announced that Gallipoli was a useless battle that was fought for British interests. Keating also declared that he had never set foot in Gallipoli and never would. According to Keating:
"Dragged into service by the imperial government in an ill-conceived and poorly executed campaign, we were cut to ribbons and dispatched -- and none of it in the defence of Australia."
Other critics have included historians Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson. In 2002, the historians ran a campaign in the Sydney Morning Herald in which they criticised the Australian celebration of Gallipoli on the grounds it,
"excludes more than half the population: women, indigenous people and most ethnic groups."
The historians also stated that Australians today should have the maturity to realise that Gallipoli was a battle fought in vain.
Arguably, Keating, the historians and those who agree with them were reacting to some of the early news reports that positioned Gallipoli as a triumph of Australian nationalism. For example, war correspondent
Ashmead-Bartlett wrote things such as:
“The Australians rose to the occasion. They did not wait for orders, or for the boats to reach the beach, but sprang into the sea, formed a sort of rough line, and rushed at the enemy’s trenches. Their magazines were not charged, so they just went in with the cold steel, and it was over in a minute for the Turks in the first trench had been either bayoneted or had run away, and the Maxim guns were captured.”
Ironically, such accounts probably damaged the very nationalistic feeling that they were intended to promote. Firstly, when the truth came out that Gallipoli was not "over in a minute", the public's faith in authorised versions of nationalism was eroded. Secondly, while soldiers often went in with "cold steel", this was because their commanding officers were more worried about losing bullets in a hopeless charge than losing lives. Consequently, they ordered that the soldiers leave the magazines behind when they went over the top. Again, the result was a loss of faith in superiors.
While critics like Keating have been unable to see past the dubious propaganda of Gallipoli, the soldiers who fought in the campaign used the realities of their experiences to build their own version of Australian nationalism and the Australian identity. Rather than be based upon soldiers obeying without question, sacrificing oneself for the commanding officer, or winning a glorious battle using bayonets alone, the Diggers' version of nationalism revolved around remembering the fallen. This began on the 25th April 1923 at Albany in Western Australia when the Reverend White led a party of friends
in what was the first ever observance of an Anzac Day dawn service. As the light was coming up, the men looked to the ocean and said a paragraph from the poem, Ode for the Fallen:
shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old;
Age shall not weary them,
nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them."
poem neither attributed right or wrong nor did it glorify war as the liberator
of freedom. It simply articulated what the war meant to those who were involved
The ode was the perfect poem fo positioning Gallipoli as a remembrance of humanity. If Australians only remembered battles because they achieved a purpose, then those who died at the Gallipoli should be forgotten as they died for nothing. If Australians remembered a battle as a triumph of good over evil, then they would be imposing morality in war. In such scenarios, the fallen Diggers could be judged as dying for a immoral cause considering they were invading someone else's country. By remembering a battle that was a failure, right or wrong became irrelevant. Because the story of Gallipoli can not be used to glorify freedom or be seen as a triumph of truth, justice and the Australian way, the story forced Australians to remember exactly what the war meant to the Diggers who fought in it.
It many ways, it was understandable that Keating wouldn't be endeared to the story of Gallipoli. The Anzac traditions that grew of it were just too human for politicians to respect, while the story itself so vividly revealed how the trusting public can be betrayed by those who were meant to protect their interests. Such politicians would prefer a more glorious battle, such as the Battle of Hamel in 1918, where Australians broke the stalemate of World War 1 with an innovative Blitzkrieg strategy. Another battle was the World War 2 battle of Kokoda, where Australians repelled a Japanese invading force. This was Keating's favourite.
While the Battle of Hamel and Kokoda definitely were more consistent with the traditional conceptions of nationalism where soldiers died in the pursuit of a great victory, Gallipoli best illustrated war in all its inhumanity, and the humanity that could spring from that. While not everyone in Australia would agree, being able to appreciate that humanity is what makes Australian’s version of nationalism superior to most other versions around the world.
Gallipoli and the Nek
One minor battle, that for the Nek, has come to symbolise the essence of the Gallipoli campaign. The Nek was a position of Turkish trenches 18 meters from those of the Australians that the British commandeers believed could be taken with four offensive raids. At 4.30 am on the 7th August 1915, the first wave of Diggers leapt from their trenches and were mown down by Turkish machine guns. The second, then third and then fourth shortly followed and met a similar fate. Within minutes, 800 Australians lay dead or wounded on a piece of ground no larger than two tennis courts. The charge was then called off.
Activity 1 - Questions
- In your opinion, is the fact that Gallipoli was not in the defence of Australia a valid reason not to remember it?
- In your opinion, is the fact that it was ill-conceived and poorly executed a reason not to remember it?
- The date of ANZAC Day was initiated by war veterans. Do you think that Keating's attitude showed that politicians and veterans think of war in different ways?
Activity 2- Why Gallipoli?
Read the following explanations for why Gallipoli attained such a high profile in Australian history. Rank them in order of which provides the best explanation for its profile.
- Anzac Day was initiated by veterans
On the 25th of April 1923 at Albany in Western Australia, the Reverend White led a party of friends in what was the first ever observance of an ANZAC Day dawn service. This date was the anniversary of the Gallipoli landing. It wasn't until 1927 that the first official service was held at the Sydney Cenotaph. Had ANZAC Day being initiated by politicians instead of soldiers, it is highly likely that a more glorious date may have been chosen.
- Continuation of the Eureka Tradition of finding victory in defeat
In 1854, the first Diggers of Australia (the miners of the Victorian goldfields) designed their flag, said their oath, made their salutes and gave their stirring speeches. They were duly slaughtered by British soldiers. Their loss was kept in mind by subsequent generations who celebrated it as if a victory. When a new generation of Diggers were slaughtered in the Gallipoli campaign, they were venerated in accordance with the Eureka tradition.
- Divisive nature of the war
The first World War was an extremely divisive issue in Australia. Some Australians were supportive of England, while others, particularly those of Irish descent, were hostile to any support being given to England. The remembrance of Gallipoli allowed soldiers to be remembered in a way that avoided most of these political issues being debated. Specifically, it allowed the Diggers to be celebrated for their valour, not for the cause they were fighting for. If attempts had been made to celebrate dying for England, or fighting a just battle, the Diggers would have found themselves ridiculed by their countrymen and fighting amongst themselves.
- Gallipoli was an event used to foster anti-English sentiment
At the turn of the century, many Australians were hostile to England and myths developed that proposed the English had bungled the landing site and used Australians as canon folder. Gallipoli helped justify arguments that the English didn’t care about Australians.
Activity 3 - Primary source analysis
Read the poem Last to Leave (below) Written by 23-year-old Australian soldier-poet Leon Gellert, a combatant at Gallipoli, to mark the evacuation of the peninsula in 1915.
- What relationships does Gellert see between the peninsula and the dead soldiers now buried there?
According to Gellert, how will the unknown soldiers be remembered?
- What mood did Gellert seem to be in during the evacuation?
- Landscape is often intertwined with identity. How does the poem help us understand why many Australians feel a spiritual tie to a small place in Turkey?
- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the first president of Turkey and the mastermind of the Turkish resistance in the Gallipoli campaign, said: "Your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land, they have become our sons as well."
Explain how Ataturk’s quote and the poem have some similar themes
The last to leave by Leon Gellert
The guns were silent, and the silent hills
had bowed their grasses to a gentle breeze
I gazed upon the vales and on the rills,
And whispered, "What of these?' and "What of these?
These long forgotten dead with sunken graves,
Some crossless, with unwritten memories
Their only mourners are the moaning waves,
Their only minstrels are the singing trees
And thus I mused and sorrowed wistfully
I watched the place where they had scaled the height,
The height whereon they bled so bitterly
Throughout each day and through each blistered night
I sat there long, and listened - all things listened too
I heard the epics of a thousand trees,
A thousand waves I heard; and then I knew
The waves were very old, the trees were wise:
The dead would be remembered evermore-
The valiant dead that gazed upon the skies,
And slept in great battalions by the shore.
Why remember Gallipoli
"Getting ashore was not that hard. Hanging on, up on that ridge, for eight months - that was hard. The Australians defended absurd positions. They looked after each other. They kept their good humour. There is a cheerfulness in soldiers' letters from Gallipoli one seldom comes upon in letters from France. The food was unspeakable, the flies a plague. [So were] dysentery and lice... The miracle is simply these men didn't lose heart. And they didn't, not even when they knew all was lost and they were creeping away by night, leaving so many dead.
"That, to me, is why we are right to remember Gallipoli. We are surely right to honour them. We are surely right to walk past the political intrigues and the blunders and say Gallipoli says something good about the Australian people and the Australian spirit." Les Carlyon
Convicts and their legacy
Regrets and floggings
Power and morality
White Australia Policy
From Convicts to Chinese
Escaping the Convict stain
Our Ned Kelly
A story heard and considered
Dying for liberty
A rebel and a saint