Does Australia need a national identity?
Western countries write policy documents and newspaper articles on the basis that their nations consist of a majority culture that has been diversified with minority cultures. Although there is broad agreement that a majority culture exists, defining what it is and who identifies with it has been problematic.
One problematic reason has been that an influx of migrants has caused politicians to question the appropriateness of asserting a national identity that migrants are not in conformity with. While they are quite comfortable writing policy documents that define ethnics via 'cultural awareness' programs, defining how the majority differ from the ethnics has political sensitivities. In the case of the European countries, an additional problem is that national identities tend to be associated with political movements that are suspicious towards the European Union. Therefore, any national government signed up to the Union sees national identities as a potential threat. (In the same way, past Australian governments were hostile to an Australian identity as it increased the threat of an American style revolution that would lead to Australia leaving the British Empire.)
A second reason for the difficulty in defining a national identity is that the internet has facilitated the flow of ideas so that likeminded subcultures based on music, religions, TV shows, cooking, and politics now operate in various countries around the world. These subcultures often provide a more meaningful sense of belonging than that provided by vague concepts of a national character. Furthermore, many citizens realise they often share more in common with some people from different countries than they do with their own.
For the west, the erosion of national identities has not come without cost. Specifically, a national identity influences the motivation of individuals to support the ambitions of their compatriots. For example, most sports-loving Australians have a strong desire to see their compatriots achieve. Consequently, they support their tax dollars being spent to fund training programs. Furthermore, they pay money to enter stadiums where they can cheer encouragement. If individuals lacked affinity with other people from their country, then they would not have any desire to support anyone except themselves. In addition, a national identity supports proposals to define a set of formal and informal rules that people of a nation abide by.
Aside from decreasing the motivation to help each other, the lack of an identity potentially contributes to alienation and poor psychological health. According to John Ralston Saul,
If individuals can not conceive of a community identity, then they cannot conceive of a role to play in a community. The outcome may be depression, suicide or joining an extremist organization aimed at tearing down the community. While the internet communities may offer an identity to the alienated, utlimately they may struggle to provide many of the human needs that come from real world interaction.
Finally, a strong national identity can facilitate fast social evolution in order to adapt to social problems that may arise. This was recognised by author Donald Horne in 1964, who wrote:
In Europe, there is a reluctance to define a national character; however, there is a willingness to pass value-based laws that reflect the morality of an undefined character. This has resulted in European countries having slightly different appoaches to dealing with identity while not acknowledging their differences in character.
France has taken an assimilationist position towards migrants. For example, Muslim veils have been banned in schools and the burqa (complete face covering) has been banned outright. Furthermore, to prevent any linking between race and culture, the French census does not ask citizens to declare their race - the implication being that all citizens are French. Despite its noble intentions, France has suffered significant ethnic riots as well as race-based nationalistic movements wanting to rid France of its ethnics. In other words, despite the public declarations that everyone is French and equal, different groups see their role in French society in very different ways. Furthermore, treating all groups with equality has also proved problematic when not all groups behave equally. For example, in 2015 the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo was the subject of a terrorist attack because it subjected Muslims to the same ridicule that it subjected other groups.
Unlike the French, the British have taken the more extreme post-modernist approach to a national identity. In short, they promote the idea that all cultures are different but equal. While nice in spirit, in practice, the theory advocates apathy in the face of offensive conduct and an inconsistent application of social liberalism. For British literary theorist Terry Eagleton, post-modernist theory is defective because it basically proposes that intolerant cultures must be tolerated. Similar ideas have been argued by Gunther Kress, a professor at the University of London. In Reimagining English: Curriculum, Identity and Productive Futures, Kress wrote:
Both men have rejected post-modernism because it has denied them the right to speak while defending the right of those they oppose to speak. Religious minorities in Britain have linked the rise in extremism to a lack of a national identity to hold onto, or to bind different cultures together. For example, Chief Rabbi Lord Sacks, wrote:
Sweden, often seen as a model of democractic consensus culture, has also found some difficulties in reconciling the need for a national identity with the identities of subcultures that do not think the same way. This has seen the rise of the term "unSwedish", which is used to represent social conduct that is not deemed to be Swedish and therefore not belonging in Sweden. While some Swedes use the term as an insult, others have embraced the insult as a term of endearment and a mark of their cosmopolitan personality. According to Daniel Lampien, a Swedish blogger:
The German government has tried to integrate migrants by working hard to ensure that the German people do not have supremacist attitudes towards the migrants. Mindful of what happened in World War 2, the German government has refrained from supporting displays of nationalism that could cause history to repeat or undermine Germany's leadership of the European Union. According to Oliver Marc Hartwich, a research fellow at the Centre for Independent Studies,
Ironically, the lack of national pride might be replicating the conditions in Germany after World War 1, where low national esteem fuelled movements in favour of Hitler. Additionally, migrants have found little reason to embrace anything but the welfare system of their new homeland because there have been few positive stories being told about Germany. According to Hartwich,
Englishman John Aston talks of reconciling a British identity with a European identity
Whereas Europe looks upon national identities as somewhat of a threat to the European Union and social cohesion within it, America has looked upon a national identity as a method of mass persuasion and a method to foster social cohension in a fractured society. For example, civil rights activists like Martin Luther King evoked the identity of the founding fathers who proposed all men are created equal when trying to persuade his fellow Americans to let go of their prejudices. Likewise, musician Jimi Hendrix played the Star Spangled Banner on the electric guitar in a way that associated American patriotism with America's progressive movements.
Martin Luther King - I had a dream (1968)
Jimi Hendrix - The Star Spangled Banner [ American Anthem ] ( Live at Woodstock 1969 )
American politicians also approach identity in a very different way to their European counterparts; particularly in presidential elections where there is a tendency to create a vision of America that is consistent with the candidate's policy agenda. For example, in the reign of Abraham Lincoln, America was about going to war against the south to ensure the doctrine of equality included black Americans. In the reign of Ronald Regan, America was about the giving the individual freedom to make his or her own choices (unlike was the case in Communism). In the reign of George Bush Jr, America was about going to war in Iraq and Afghanistan to liberate the oppressed in Islamic countries while demonstrating American power. In the reign of Barrack Obama, America was about all races having equality of opportunity.
Finally, an assortment of businesses promote a vision of America that is conducive to the consumption of their products. For example, Harley Davidson motorcycles create the image of the freedrider on American highways, movie studios create American heroes to build a connection with their audience and sporting organisations like the NFL position their sports as an all American pastime.
Ironically, the number of vested American interests actively trying to shape, redefine and champion an American identity has made it difficult to exactly define the American identity. While there is an almost universal American belief in the value of the American identity, there is not universal agreement about what it is. Even if there were, vested interests would be trying to change it.
Because America has a mosaic of national identities that are always been challenged, individual Americans don't suffer the same kind of oppression that exists in non-western nations that have more singular national identities that expect individual conformity. Specifically, if an individual America doesn't identity with a promoted national identity, there are alternatives that they can identify with to gain a sense of belonging and informal rules to live by.
For much of the 19th century, an Australian identity was formed by fusing Convict history, events like the Eureka Rebellion and Aboriginal culture to create a kind of bush identity that was different from the British identity and in opposition to it. For example, the song Waltzing Matilda built its patriotic credentials by using Aboriginal words like coolibah, jumbuck and billabong as it described a story of a man who stole a sheep but killed himself rather than be caught. Likewise, on January 21 1888, the Bullentin wrote:
Naturally, those institutions that were formally and informally governed by a British identity were hostile to the Australian identity. Generally, the threat was dealt with by failing to give any official approval to Australian culture or funding it in any way. Informally, this gave rise to the "cultural cringe" which led to a cultural rejection of anything with an Australian label. Formally, there was also some rejection with the NSW government banning bushranging films in 1906 and the state run ABC banning Australian accents until the 1970s (newsreaders had to be imported from England.)
When the British identity was eroded in the 1970s and 1980s, it left generations of Australians of British descent with a hostile attitude towards the Australian identity but without a British identity to promote in its place, or at least moderate the anti-Australian prejudice with some cultural respect. The identity that has filled the void has been largely based upon creating derogatory caricatures of Australians but without seeing themselves as part of their derogatory caricatures. Examples of the identity at work include Anglo commentator Catherine Deveny, who said in 2010:
Likewise, white cartoonist Andrew Weldon created a "funny" comic strip in 2013 proposing that Australian traditions involve generalising, deindividualising, stereotyping, distrusting, being prejudiced, and making assumptions in the name of humour (see below). Ironically, his humour was based on prejudice, generalising, de-individualisation and stereotyping so in a way, his work demonstrated his possession of the Australian characteristics he sought to distance himself from by negatively caricaturing others. Furthermore, since all his Australians were white, he was demonstrating a belief that the Australian is white - like himself - which arguably was a racist viewpoint.
Finally, Anglo sports reporter for the SBS, Scott McIntyre, took to Twitter on Anzac Day 2015 to caricature Australian soldiers as rapists, terrorists and war criminals. Furthermore, he caricatured anyone who paid respect on Anzac Day as gamblers, drunks, uneducated and white (like himself). In his own words,
In the absence of an instititionally approved national identity, the Australian identity had largely been filled by a minorty subculture. Just as a termite mound is a king on a flat landscape, identities that have been defined as 'bushman', 'yobbo', 'larrikin' and 'bogan' have tended to have a monopoly on what it means to be an Australian. They might only comprise 10% of the population, but they perhaps comprise 90% of the imagery used to describe the Australian stereotype because they have little competition for the Australian label.
In film, an example of how a minority identity could gain a virtually monopoly on the Australian identity due to lack of competition could be seen in the 1985 movie Crocodile Dundee. The film created a modern version of the traditional larrikin bush identity with status created via an association with Aborigines. See http://aso.gov.au/titles/features/crocodile-dundee/clip2/ It remains one of the few Australian movies that have positioned an Australian as a hero and which has portrayed Australia in a positive way.
The success of Crocodile Dundee illustrated many of the advantages that are achieved via a national identity. Worldwide, it generated immense good will for Australia which in turn generated a dramatic rise in tourism - particularly from the United States. Tourists probably didn’t come to Australia expecting to find Australian men fighting crocodiles, but they did expect to find Australians with a love of landscapes, a sense of humour, a traditional Aboriginal influence and adaptability.
Domestically, Crocodile Dundee initially created a wave good will that was another shot in the arm to the Australian movie industry. A series of quirky comedies were subsequently released that rode on the back of the growing sense of national pride and a desire of Australians to support the creative endeavours of their compatriots.
Longer-term, however, Crocodile Dundee became a source of division. Australia's inner-city intelligentsia, who maintained a prejudiced attitude to Australia, became concerned that the movie portrayed an unrealistic image of Australians, or more specifically, a positive view of Australians that they didn't like. In what could be likened to an English person criticising James Bond movies because most Englishmen aren't spies or Bridgett Jones movies because most English women don't work in the media, they argued that most Australians don't have blond hair, don't wrestle crocodiles, don't live in the outback and don't say 'g'day'. For Geoffrey Barker of the Melbourne Herald, the movie reinforced international perceptions that "Australians are gauche, provincial and philistine". Academic Veronica Brady said the film was about "colonial servility, violence and a profound confusion of values".
For motivations best described as prejudice, a new generation of filmmakers then set about "correcting" the image of Australia with movies like Welcome to Woop (1997), Priscilla (1994) and Wolf Creek (2006) that caricatured Australians as racist, sexist, homophobic and psychopathic murderers. The tourist industry suffered, the Australian film industry was destroyed and a positive identity that could have acted as a model to aspire to be like was deconstructed.
Ironically, whereas supporters of Crocodile Dundee never proposed that the movie was part of an advocacy campaign to define the image of Australia or any social groups within Australia, supporters of movies attacking the Crocodile Dundee stereotype did propose that the scenes in their movies were accurate reflections of reality. For example, Paul Byrnes, Sydney Morning Herald film critic, wrote:
Likewise, Wolf Creek director Greg McClean's suggested that his psychopathic characetr that tortured and murdered tourists was a conflation of various Australian cultural traits. In his own words,
Those Australians who chose to embrace an Australian identity face discrimination and prejudice from the Australians of Anglo descent who control most of Australia's institutions and whose sense of self is largely created via negative caricaturing of Australians. As a result, many Australians simply don't identify with Australia despite not identifying with their ancestry either. Ironically, the dominant Australian identity is therefore a prejudiced identity and an alienated identity which is not acknowledged or celebrated as an identity at all.
Does Australia need a national identity?
Consider how perceptions of an Australian identity may be influential in the following circumstances
What is the dominant culture?
Anglo social commentator Catherine Deveny stated:
Timeline of the Australian identity
Aboriginal tribal identities were based around an animal or plant totem. Each Aboriginal person believed they had three forms which gave them a continuous life form. The totem was the form after human and then to spirit. As the cycle continued, so did the Aboriginal cultures.
There was no concept of an Aboriginal identity or Australia as one land. Each tribe was very much its own unit and reserved hostility to other tribes. This hostility to an outgroup helped maintain a strong ingroup identity.
Because Aboriginal identities were not defined along racial lines, there was more hostility between different Aboriginal tribes that there was towards the colonists that arrived in 1788. Furthermore, the prestige of the tribe was not defined according to land ownership, but according to the number of people in a tribe. For this reason, the tribe was both open to new inductees, but also intent on destroying all rivals.
-Paintings, customs, songs, myths, stories
After gaining their ticket of leave, Convicts started referring to themselves as Legitimates. Their thinking was that since they had been "chosen" by the finest judges in England, they were of the few Europeans with a legitimate reason to be in Australia. Later they referred to themselves as Emancipists because it implied they had attained liberty and strove for the liberty of others. The Legitimate/Emancipist identity was maintained with hostility to the Exclusives.
Expression - Songs, flash language, tattoos, convict women mooning wowsers or 'exposing her person.'
Note - Identity not defined along racial lines. As a consequence, hostility to Exclusives was far greater than any hostility to Aboriginal tribes.
The Exclusives were free British settlers, or military officers who had left the service. The Exclusives advocated confining all offices and civic honours to Emigrants with the total exclusion of Emancipists and their offspring.
The Exclusives were extremely pro-British and maintained their identity with a strong hostility to the Legitimates/Emancipists.
Expression - English flag, English clothes, formal English speech
Note - The Exclusives saw the Aborigines as 'noble savages.' Their thinking was that Aborigines were without sin as they have never learnt it. For this reason, they wanted to prevent Aborigines mixing with Convicts.
1800 – 1850 – Convicts have children
The Native Born - Currency lads and lasses
The first native born in Australia were taunted as the 'wretched' and the lowest class because their parents had been Convicts. This discrimination was institutionalised when it came to the distribution of land grants. Whereas free immigrants were frequently given grants running in thousands of acres, the native born of Convict stock were only allowed sixty acres.
The bush pioneer became the icon for the native born. Out in the bush, no laws ran and people were free to sing folk songs or live in equality. There was no room for elitism because people on the land needed to rely upon one another in the tough conditions. The identity was maintained with hostility to English immigrants and authority figures.
Expression - Bushranger songs, bush poetry
Ballad of Ben Hall
As the colony expanded out from Sydney, the Europeans came into conflict with Aborigines over land. Although tribal identities remained, the Europeans started to take the place of rival tribes as the principle enemy.
Although there was hostility, there was also friendship. Some Aborigines left their tribes and formed good relations with the native born. They worked as droving hands and sang songs with the other drovers. Aside from being admired for their lyrical ability, they were admired for their bush skills. In a sense, their knowledge of the land had them admired as the protypical bushman. Reflecting the admiration for the Aborigines is the use of Aboriginal place names for rural Australia.
1850 - 1900 The gold rush years
The Digger (Miner)
In 1853, the discovery of gold sparked massive waves of immigration. Miners from all over the world descended upon Australia and brought with them ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity. Although they valued self-reliance, independence and resourcefulness, they were also fiercely loyal to their mates.
Egalitarian sentiments were solidified with a dislike of the ruling colonial authorities that were deemed to be corrupt and elitist. This gave rise to a union movement. As the authorities tried to break unions via the importation of Chinese labour, the Chinese became another enemy to solidify the Digger's identity.
Expression - Eureka Stockade Flag. No songs were written to glorify the Eureka Stockade.
At the height of the gold rush, there were up to 100,000 Chinese people in Australia. Chinese newspapers of the time depicted the Chinese as hardworking and the other miners as lazy. Although such stories may have indeed been a reflection upon how the Chinese saw themselves, they may have also been a form of propaganda designed to persuade the Chinese not to complain about being exploited by mining companies.
When the Chinese weren't working for a company, they worked together in teams. It was said that they were very efficient at extracting gold and often went to the mine sites deserted by other Diggers, and found gold that had been missed. This was said to have infuriated the other miners.
Although most of the Chinese returned to China, some stayed and established businesses. Unlike most expat Chinese populations around the world, these Chinese seem to have integrated into the other emerging Australian identities.
Expression - Newspaper articles calling other miners lazy.
The Wowser (activist)
By the turn of the century, the anti-transportation activists of the 1850s had evolved into anti-Chinese activists. The wowsers were very loyal to the English empire and saw themselves as British rather than Australians.
Expression - Protest marches and posters likening the 'yellow peril' with Convicts.
Capitalist and outcasts
Words of racial superiority probably did not wash with any Australian of mixed blood or those descedended from Convicts. To the contrary, the stigmisation of the Chinese probably fostered a sense of empathy. The Kelly Gang seemed to be one such group that had time for the Chinese. They were rumoured to have been helped by Chinese (although this might have been propaganda to win the public relations war against the gang.) One member of the gang, Joe Byrne, definately was on good terms because he could speak fluent Cantonese.
Some sections of the business community could also see the positive side of the Chinese. Perhaps due to the language barrier, they were less likely to join the union movement, and so allowed businesses to pay low wages.
Federated nation – 1900- 1950
The pioneer continued on the bush tradition laid by the previous generations.
Expression - Paintings by the likes of Arthur Streeton and Tom Roberts. Poetry by Banjo Pattern and Henry Lawson.
The Digger had his baptism of fire in the Gallipoli campaign. Rather than hate the enemy, the Diggers seemed to hate the English. The Poms were seen as filthy cowards whose incompetence had resulted in the loss of life of countless Australians.
Perhaps the dislike of Poms made the Diggers better soldiers. It seems as if they felt that they had to prove their superiority over the English on the battlefield.
Expression - War poetry, Anzac Day, courage on the battlefield
The Wowser (Englishman)
Once the threat of Convicts and Chinese had ended, the Wowsers found themselves somewhat aimless. Some directed their attention to campaigning against frivolous pastimes like gambling and drinking. Others found it immoral for people to jump into the ocean wearing small bathing suits.
With a dislike of these great Australian pastimes, the Wowsers remained obsessive in their support for English values, and moral empowerment.
1950 - 2000- The larrikins, post-modernists
The Aboriginal Victim
By the end of World War II, Aboriginal tribal identities had eroded to the extent that white people stopped seeing differences between Aboriginal tribes and instead began viewing them as a homogenous out-group. Names for individual tribes faded away and instead Aborigines, the generic word for an indigenous population, came into use by default.
Aborigines also stopped thinking in cultural terms and instead began to think of themselves in racial terms. Blacks were part of their in-group while all whites were the out-group invaders. Asians were in an undefined category.
Many Aborigines developed a strong identification with black power movements from America. They assimilated rap music, and the baggy style of clothes. Oddly, many Aborigines became Rastarian; except they dropped the green from the colour coding. (Rastafarism is a pseudo-Christian based religion developed by the descendents of slaves wanting to show pride in their African heritage. Its name comes from Prince Rastafari of Ethiopia. It is not possible to be Rastarian without African heritage.)
Perhaps assessments of Aborigines also went downhill in mainstream society. When the bush was held up as the "true Australia", the Aborigines were celebrated as the prototypical bushmen. As the bush lost its iconic status, so too did the Aborigines that lived in it.
Expression - Aboriginal flag, protest marches, music, Aboriginal tent embassy, defiance of white authority
Although Larrikins have always been popular in Australia, it wasn't until after World War II that larrikins also became national heroes. The likes of Dawn Fraser and John Newcombe commanded respect across the classes, which made their rule indiscretions difficult to criticise. The result was a change in the meaning of the world larrikin. Instead of conjuring images of street criminals, it conjured images of good-hearted risk takers.
The larrikin identity was maintained by mocking the wowser and subsequently taking delight in their displeasure.
Expression: Praise for icons such as Dawn Fraser, Ned Kelly, John Newcombe. The music of AC/DC and Skyhooks.
After the English identity collapsed, many Wowsers were left without a social conception of themselves. Not wanting to identify with Australia, they instead became post-modern multiculturalists. This identity maintained a dislike of everything and anything Australian. It justified its identity on the grounds that identifying with Australia was an act of racism. Colonisation symbolised racism towards Aborigines. The Eureka rebellion and Ned Kelly symbolised racism towards Chinese. Federation symbolised racism to all non-whites. Gallipoli symbolised sexism and racism on the grounds most of the soldiers were white men and therefore excluded minority groups. Whitlam Minister Al Grassby even said that people who identified themselves as Australians, rather than ethnic, were worse than Hitler's Third Reich.
According to the multiculturalists, Australia only became an open-minded country after World War II when it became multicultural for the "first" time.
Ironically, multiculturalists ideas have tended to originate from left-wing university departments. These departments are the last bastion of the White Australia Policy. No institution in Australia has a higher concentration of white people. Furthermore, no other institution has such little contact with the outside world. The focus on racial history, combined with their own whiteness, seems to indicate that identifying with the white race is still an integral part of the multiculturalist's identity. In short, a race-based identity, even if it is a self-flagellating one, still excludes others.
Expression - Support for an apology, on behalf of the white race, for injustices inflicted upon Aborigines. Support for a republic on the grounds British heritage is irrelevant to non-white migrants. Support for refugees on the grounds that Australians are racist for supporting mandatory detention of illegal immigrants.
Expatriate/ global swagman
While the multiculturalists tended to avoid new experiences, the expatriate went searching for them. Some went as backpackers to pull beers in a London pub. Others went as actors to America to make their fortune. Some went to Japan to establish television shows.
The global swagman's desire for new experiences gave rise to the expression that "there is nothing more Australian than spending time in someone elses' country."
Expression - Songs such as Downunder, movies like Crocadile Dundee and iconic expatriates like Nicole Kidman, Russel Crowe, Kylie Minogue, taking a jar of vegemite overseas, Qantas theme: "I Still Call Australia Home."
2000 onwards - Bogans and anti-bogans
The word 'bogan' originated in the 1980s in reference to teenagers that listened to heavy metal. Over the following three decades, the category was expanded. The book, "Things Bogans Like" suggests that bogan and Australalian are interchangeable terms.
Traditionally, bogan was a term that was negatively applied to people rather than a term people chose to embrace.
Expression - Southern Cross Tattoos, bumper stickers, articles that denounce tossers
Anti-bogans are by far the largest social group in Australia and hold most of the power. They do not have a clear idea about what they are, but they know they don't like bogans and are not bogans.
Area-7 - Nobody Likes a Bogan
Expression - Songs like "Nobody Likes a Bogan", books such as "Things Bogans Like", the "comedy" of the Chaser and Catherine Deveny